Wood, wood-laminate, and metal cabinets usually can be repainted without difficulty. Plastic laminate cabinets resist overpainting — those that can be refinished often require special paints and techniques, and results can vary. If your cabinets have plastic laminate surfaces, first check with a knowledgeable paint dealer, and test a sample of the paint you wish to use in an inconspicuous area to ensure that it will bond to the material.
Flat-front doors and drawers are easily repainted, but woodwork with raised panels, routed profiles or other architectural detailing will require more time to prep and paint. If the woodwork is warped, badly worn or damaged, or coming apart at the glued joints, you can opt to buy new unfinished doors and drawers and paint them along with your existing cabinets.
Applicator options for repainting include spraying, rolling or brushing with either a natural or synthetic bristle brush or a foam brush. All have their advantages and disadvantages; choose whichever is most suited to the amount of woodwork to be repainted and your own style of working. The best applicator also may depend on the type of paint or finish you choose.
Start by removing the cabinet doors and drawers and remove all pulls, knobs, latches and other hardware from these parts. Place the hardware and screws in plastic bags inside the cabinets where they will be easy to locate when you're ready to reassemble everything (Image 1).
Number each door and its corresponding location as you remove them (Image 2). Do not mix them up or the hinges may not line up properly when you reinstall them (Image 3). If you are painting only the drawer fronts, you won’t have to remove the attached slides. If you do need to remove the slides, mark them and their locations as well.
Kitchens are work areas, so grease, steam, and food splatters are common. Before you begin sanding or painting, clean all of the surfaces to be repainted with a solution made from one part tri-sodium phosphate and four parts water. Rinse, but do not soak the cabinets. Allow them to dry thoroughly.
Lightly sand the doors on all sides and faces (Image 1). Use a wood sanding block to prevent rounding over the wood edges (Image 2). If your repainting project is just a facelift for the cabinets, you don’t need to sand and paint the inside of the cabinets; mask off the interiors with painters’ tape for a clean finish and sand only the front surfaces and visible edges of the cabinet face frames.
When sanding, there is no need to remove all of the old paint if it is sound and well-adhered; just roughen the surface to provide the new paint with a firm, clean base for better adhesion. Pay particular attention to especially worn areas of old finish, which typically get the most use. Also be sure to sand over shiny areas to deglaze any remaining previous finish. Stubborn finishes may require rubbing with denatured alcohol and fine steel wool.
If the old paint is flaking off in places, it indicates the finish did not adhere well to the wood surface. This is typically due to moisture or greasy residue getting under the paint layer or into the wood itself, which can be expected in kitchens. Sand these areas to bare wood and spot-prime with a stain-killing primer/sealer before repainting. Wherever you sand down to bare wood, try to blend or “feather” the edges where the old paint meets the wood so the new paint will lay flat, and the paint edges will not be visible or “telegraph” through the new finish.
Thoroughly vacuum the sanding dust from all surfaces (Image 3). If you have a pneumatic air compressor, use high-pressure air to blow the dust out of crevices or molding details. Wipe down the areas to be painted with a tack cloth to pick up any remaining sanding residue (Image 4).
Apply an even coat of primer-sealer to all surfaces to ensure a well-bonded finish coat. Primer-sealers also reduce the need to sand and deglaze old finishes before repainting. Another advantage to a primer-sealer is that it provides a good base for semigloss, water-based paint. High-gloss enamel paint was once the preferred finish for kitchen cabinets because it resists stains and water and is easily cleaned, but today’s water-based finishes are easier to work with and provide an equally durable finish.
Start by painting the inside edges and openings of the face frames, then the outer cabinet sides, and finally the face frame fronts. This allows you to work quickly in the less critical areas, and enables you to see and correct any drips or smudges on the most visible areas.
Next, paint the cabinet doors and drawer fronts, along with any separate wood pieces or moldings (Image 1). If these parts have raised or routed features, be sure to flow the paint into crevices and corners, but don’t allow it to accumulate in these spots (Image 2).
Always apply paint in thin, light coats, but be sure to cover all areas. Thin coats leave fewer visible brushstrokes and dry more quickly. Don’t lay the finish on thickly and don’t overwork the brush — too many brush strokes will create air bubbles in the finish, leaving bumps and pits when it dries.
Allow the paint to dry for at least four hours between coats. When dry, resand all surfaces lightly to prepare them for the second coat (Image 3), wipe away all sanding dust with a tack cloth (Image 4), then repaint. Two coats of quality paint are usually all that is necessary, but you may want to add a third coat because kitchen cabinets take lots of punishment from cooking heat and day-to-day use, and wood surfaces need all the protection they can get.