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Insert a new wax gasket on the outlet of the new bowl. The tapered side faces away from the bowl. Double check that the toilet flange is tight and not corroded. The toilet flange helps make a tight connection between the toilet and the waste pipe. The flange sits on top of the floor and connects to a collar that fits through the floor. Historically the flange was secured in place with putty, but today there are several plastic flange gaskets to choose from.
There are also several type of wax rings. Some have a plastic insert that is used to direct water flow (Image 1). A wax gasket with an insert #10 is thicker, which provides a good connection when remodeling the bathrooms in older homes or if the flange is set low (Image 2). For most situations, wax gaskets without plastic inserts (Image 3) can provide a suitable seal against sewer gases.
Apply a bead of caulk to the base of the toilet. Remove the rag from the drainpipe. Lower the bowl into place on top of the flange and press down.
Gently tighten the washers and nuts onto the bolts. Tightening too hard can crack the porcelain.
Use plastic toilet shims if the toilet is not level. Fill the caps with plumber's putty and place the caps over the bolts.
Excerpted from Do It Yourself Home Improvement
© Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009