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Measure and cut a 12" (outside length) piece of 1-1/2" molding. Set aside. With wood glue, attach two pieces of 3/4" poplar, each measuring 4" x 12". Allow glue to dry.
Using a band saw, cut one end of the poplar narrower than the other so it will accept a C-clamp when clamped to the fence. Using a miter saw, cut a 45-degree angle from the opposite end of the poplar.
Starting 1" from the narrow end of the block, make a series of marks 1" apart. Mark a zero by the first mark -- the one farthest to the left.
Place the guide along the fence and set the miter saw. Using the 12" piece of molding, place the right-hand miter against the saw blade, and slide the guide into the left side.
Affix the ruler to the fence, aligning the 12" mark of the ruler with the zero mark on the measuring block. (Note: Because most rulers run left to right, mount the ruler upside down so the numbers run up from the blade.) When measuring conventionally on a miter saw, the 12" mark of the ruler will be aligned with the left-hand miter of the piece of molding. In this case, because a measuring block is being used, the 12" mark will align with the zero on the block.
Label the other marks as follows: At the measuring-block mark that aligns with the 11" mark on the ruler, mark 1/2. At the 10" mark on the ruler, mark 1 on the block. At the 9" mark on the ruler, mark 1-1/2 on the block and so on. (This indicates that the 1-1/2" piece of molding has a 9" inside miter measurement.)