Reroofing is a major project that should usually be carried out by a professional contractor, but skilled DIYers can often handle small-scale repairs.
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Use a hammer and chisel to split and remove the broken shingle (Image 1).
Wind tape around one end of a hacksaw blade to form a "handle" by which to hold it. Use the blade to cut through the shingle's nails (Image 2).
Slide the new shingle into position and secure it in place with nails as close as possible to the row above (Image 3). Seal along the edges of the shingle, and across the nail heads, with a sealant.
Use a pry bar to lever up the nails in the damaged strip of shingles (Image 1). Then remove it.
Loosen the nails at the top and bottom of the strip of shingles above, so that you can slide the new strip of shingles in underneath it (Image 2).
Slide the new strip of shingles up and into position (Image 3).
Hide nails by placing the end of the pry bar over them, and hitting it farther down the shank of the bar with a hammer to knock them in (Image 4).
A valley can be constructed from lead or other metals such as tin, from plastic, or from special valley tiles or shingles. Repairing a leaking valley will normally involve stripping back the tiles, slates, or shingles from along the valley edge to expose the structure, and then replacing the damaged part. Tiles or similar coverings may well have been cut to the right size to follow the valley course. Chalk numbers on them as you remove them, so that you can put them back in the right order. Not all valleys have flashing on them; some are made with shaped tiles or even with shingles cut to fit across the valley. Assess your repair requirements according to the type of valley you have. Three types of valleys are shown here.
Image 1: Asphalt Open Valley
Image 2: Lead Valley
Image 3: Single Woven Valley
Excerpted from Do It Yourself Home Improvement
© Dorling Kindersley Limited 2009